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Spatiotemporal Models for Data-Anomaly Detection in Dynamic Environmental Monitoring Campaigns

TitleSpatiotemporal Models for Data-Anomaly Detection in Dynamic Environmental Monitoring Campaigns
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2011
AuthorsDereszynski, E. W., and T. G. Dietterich
JournalACM Transactions on Sensor Networks
Pagination1 - 36
Date Published08/2011
Keywordsanomaly detection, bayesian modeling, distribution functions, environmental monitoring, Markov processes, multivariate statistics, parameter learning, quality control, wireless sensor network

The ecological sciences have benefited greatly from recent advances in wireless sensor technologies. These technologies allow researchers to deploy networks of automated sensors, which can monitor a landscape at very fine temporal and spatial scales. However, these networks are subject to harsh conditions, which lead to malfunctions in individual sensors and failures in network communications. The resulting data streams often exhibit incorrect data measurements and missing values. Identifying and correcting these is time-consuming and error-prone. We present a method for real-time automated data quality control (QC) that exploits the spatial and temporal correlations in the data to distinguish sensor failures from valid observations. The model adapts to each deployment site by learning a Bayesian network structure that captures spatial relationships between sensors, and it extends the structure to a dynamic Bayesian network to incorporate temporal correlations. This model is able to flag faulty observations and predict the true values of the missing or corrupt readings. The performance of the model is evaluated on data collected by the SensorScope Project. The results show that the spatiotemporal model demonstrates clear advantages over models that include only temporal or only spatial correlations, and that the model is capable of accurately imputing corrupted values.

Short TitleACM Trans. Sen. Netw.TOSN