Atomic layer deposition of uniform thin hafnium oxide films has been demonstrated directly on H-terminated silicon surfaces using anhydrous hafnium nitrate Formula precursor and Formula vapor. Atomic layer deposition was initiated on hydrogen terminated silicon surfaces and occurred at substrate temperatures as low as 160°C. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that as-deposited films were smooth, uniform, and amorphous, and that film morphology can be altered by a post-deposition anneal. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated that films are oxygen rich, contain silicate, and that residual Formula and Formula from the precursor can be eliminated by a post-deposition anneal. For a ∼57 Å Formula film, a dielectric constant of Formula and a capacitive equivalent thickness of ∼21 Å were obtained.